Is diclofenac more effective at reducing pain from ureteric calculi than morphine or paracetamol?

BEEM Bottom Line

Why is this study important?

Intravenous (IV) opioids often are administered in the emergency department (ED) for ureteric calculi (UC) pain to satisfy clinical orthodoxy or patient expectation, but administrative and procedural barriers often impede timely access.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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