What are the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline solution (≥ 3%) in reducing morbidity in children up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis?

BEEM Bottom Line

Why is this study important?

Bronchiolitis is a common and resource-intensive emergency department (ED) presentation for infants, and it is the leading cause of infant hospital admissions. In Canada, admission rates range from 2,478–11,162/100,000 infants in the first year of life.[1] Bronchiolitis causes airway edema and mucus plugging, and treatment is supportive albeit highly variable.[2] Hypertonic saline solution (HSS) has been shown to increase mucociliary clearance in other respiratory diseases, but despite multiple trials, controversy remains over its effectiveness for acute viral bronchiolitis.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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