What is the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients admitted to hospital for first-time syncope?

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Why is this study important?

Syncope, a rapid, transient loss of consciousness of short duration and spontaneous resolution, is a common presenting complaint in the emergency department (ED). Pulmonary embolism (PE) is believed to be a cause of syncope  due to reduction in left ventricular filling, which in turn, reduces cardiac output and cerebral blood flow. The prevalence of PE among patients with syncope is unknown.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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