Is intranasal ketamine effective for the treatment of acute pain in children?

BEEM Bottom Line

Why is this study important?

While ketamine is widely accepted as the safest and most commonly used agent for procedural sedation in children, its use for moderate to severe pain management is less well-described.[1] Use of the intranasal (IN) route for administration allows for earlier pain management, and in some cases, avoidance of a potentially distressing medical procedure,  i.e., intravenous (IV) insertion. This study attempts to synthesize available evidence regarding IN ketamine and determine how its safety and effectiveness compared to other analgesic agents.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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