Is there an association between pain, opioid treatment, and delirium in older adults in the emergency department?

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Why is this study important?

Delirium is an acute state of transient confusion with a fluctuating course and occurs frequently in emergency department (ED) patients.[1] Delirium also is associated with adverse outcomes and is an independent predictor of increased 6-month mortality.[1] [2] Pain and delirium often occur together. However, there are limited data investigating interactions between pain and delirium across settings. In this Canadian prospective multicenter cohort study, the authors examine whether pain, opioids or both are associated with the development of delirium during an ED stay in an older ED population.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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