Which clinical findings best indicate a cardiac or non-cardiac cause of syncope?

BEEM Bottom Line

Why is this study important?

Syncope is a common emergency department (ED) presenting complaint. The challenges for emergency physicians are to first determine whether the event was true syncope or seizure, and if syncope, assess the patient’s short-term risk for recurrence, morbidity, and mortality. Cardiopulmonary disease is one of the most serious causes of syncope, but it can be difficult to diagnose. This review provides evidence to help clinicians diagnose cardiac syncope based on the clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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