What is the accuracy of lung ultrasonography compared to X-ray for the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in patients presenting with dyspnea?

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Why is this study important?

Chest X-ray (CXR) is a standard investigation ordered by the emergency physicians in the evaluation for pulmonary edema from acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). With the expanding role of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS), emergency physicians are performing lung ultrasonography (LUS) in the emergency department (ED), which could lead to earlier confirmation of pulmonary edema rather than with CXR findings. Pulmonary edema is diagnosed with LUS with the visualization of sonographic B-lines, a marker of interstitial thickening or alveolar fluid. B-lines are vertical hyperechoic reverberation artefacts from the pleural line to the bottom of the screen that move with the lung sliding. This literature review attempts to compare the diagnostic performance of LUS to CXR for cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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