Are intranasal ketamine and fentanyl similarly effective in the treatment of acute pediatric limb pain?

BEEM Bottom Line

Why is this study important?

Clinicians seek faster-acting, effective, and easy to administer pain medications to children with acute injury in the emergency department (ED). The intranasal (IN) route of analgesic administration is ideal for treating children with moderate to severe pain because it is relatively simple, almost painless, and has a rapid onset of action.[1] Both IN fentanyl and ketamine have been previously shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of pediatric pain.[2] [3] [4] This trial compares the relative effectiveness of IN fentanyl and ketamine in children with acute limb injuries.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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