Does pelvic examination improve the diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease in young females?

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Why is this study important?

Pelvic examinations have been considered routine for patients with gynaecological complaints. However, the bimanual and speculums examinations are invasive and uncomfortable, and their diagnostic value is questionable. Teenage females are more likely to have multiple serial partners, which has multiple health implications including sexually transmitted disease (STD) exposure, unintended pregnancy, and subsequent STD complications. This study assesses the diagnostic performance of the pelvic examination in young female emergency department (ED) patients aged 14–20 years old with suspected cervicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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