Can antidotes be delivered via the intraosseous route?

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Why is this study important?

In the absence of peripheral intravenous (IV) access, central IV access is recommended for parenteral antidote administration, but it is not always an option due to time, technical constraints, or lack of experience, especially in children. Intraosseous (IO) access has proven to be an effective delivery system for fluids and medications in both adults and children when peripheral IV access is not available.[1] This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of IO delivery of antidotes.

Which, if any, threats to validity are most likely to have an impact on the results and how?

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